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Cities and industries have been and will be energy deficit by nature. There are huge new energy supplying facilities needed that can power the cities and industries. These energy generating facilities could not be located in or nearby the cities or industries, otherwise they wouldn't be energy deficit. Small local industrial volumes can be powered with local power surplus (PV and Wind power generation of households that deliver their daytime surplus to the local grid). But cities, with their concentration of house, shops, stores, offices, factories and warehouses will always need remote energy capacities. Remote energy capacities always will deliver more expense and less secure energy supply. Energy, water and food will be in cities much more expensive than in suburbans. Smart cities and nations chose for diversification. Both in supplying countries and supplying technologies/sources. By the fact cities are the ones with the energy deficit (the ones that cause the national energy deficit), energy policies will be more a city (or joint cities) issue, than a national issue. Cities will want to draw their own lines in terms of solving their energy deficits. How to create this remote capacity? In 2008 there are two valid renewable options. Remote CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) in deserts and remote Wind Power on sea. Later on maybe remote Ocean Thermal can play a third role (by it constant 24/7 supply and also endless reserves very attractive). Both bio fuel and nuclear energy are not discussed in this analysis: both technologies have to do a lot of home work before they really can contribute to world prosperity and safety. Remote CSP facilities are located in the world's deserts. Their sizes are huge (as in square miles/kilometers. Their basic technology is very simple: 1) Sunlight creates warmth when it penetrates a subject. 2) When we concentrated sunlight it causes very high temperatures. We all have played with these two facets as children when we burn paper with just a magnifying glass. CPS is about concentrate sunlight at large scale with larges mirrors to heat a large volume fluid to very high temperatures. Temperatures that variables from 400 to 1000 degrees Celsius, depending on the used sunlight concentration technology. Than there are two options: 1) The fluid with very high temperature can be used to generate stream steam out of water and let that steam drives a turbine based power generator. This 'warmth to steam to energy' technology is very similar to the use of the warmth of burning coal to generate steam. 2) The fluid with high temperatures can be used to warm just air to high temperatures that powers a sterling motor based power generator. Both concepts can be used in mutual redundancy, or redundancy can be accomplished by hot fuel redundancy facilitating pipes between same or different installations. CSP can have as side product very clear (condensed) sweet water. Something valuable in desert environments or in the international market (as major cities become water quantity or water quality deficit). CSP installations will be build based on new glass technology (not only for the mirrors, but also for the structure, so no aluminum or iron frames), that will be produced on location (no limit to sand and energy in the desert). CPS projects can be combined with PV projects (on top of the seawater supplying -glass tech based- pipes from out the sea) and agriculture and housing under these by the cold seawater conditioned burning sun protected long PV based roof). CSP can be combined by bio fuel or fertilizer algae agriculture and fish farms on the soil under the mirror stands. CSP nearby locations are also the regions where energy intensive industries will move to (as there still will be demand for energy intensive products, what is disputable). Remote Wind Power will be generated both 1) on sea and 2) on the world's steppes. On sea on structures made of glass technology, not by iron, because iron erode very much due the salty seawater and iron prices are skyrocking. Large floating frame's with wind mills on each crossing, or separate windmills with under water balance structures and by glass fiber cables. New variable generator will be used that are capable of working by both soft and heavy winds. Small ships with small helicopters on board will do maintenance. By the use of glass technology wind power will require less elements. These remote power will be transported to energy deficit cities by: 1) HVDC (inter)continental power lines (only 3% power lost per 1000 km distance) and the demand for HVDC cables will pushing the copper price to the max seen ever, or 2) by Hydrogen production and transport (by the huge prices of copper attractive, but more energy use in production), or 3) by energy intensive industrial commodities and products, or 4) by a combination of those three. Algae based bio fuels and fertilizers and the results of the fishing cultures will be transported by road.

Author: Gijs Graafland

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